Citation | Moyen-Âge et racisme

Je voudrais vous révéler le vilain petit secret de mon domaine, les Etudes Médiévales : les suprématistes blanc.he.s trouvent le Moyen Âge est incroyablement attrayant. Aux yeux des gens pour qui l’idée d’un formidable monde rétrograde consiste à avoir des hommes blancs Chrétiens en position de pouvoir tandis que le reste d’entre nous restons à notre place, le Moyen Âge est un terrain fertile pour l’imagination, où il semble facile, au moins superficiellement, d’ignorer le rôle essentiel d’une population incroyablement diverse. Il y a des légendes comme celle du Roi Arthur, des images comme les Tapisseries de Bayeux, et de longues histoires de Croisades qui, à première vue, présentent le Moyen Âge comme très blanc et comme un monde très soigneusement divisé en “nous” et “eux”.

Cette vision d’un Moyen Âge très blanc, très Chrétien fait partie d’une rhétorique politique depuis assez longtemps : les politiciens anti-féministes exploitent leur idée d’une chevalerie médiévale et d’un amour courtois pour donner à leurs idées une base historique. Le parti Nationaliste Anglais utilise l’histoire d’Excalibur pour promouvoir sa vision d’une Angleterre de race pure. Les Croisades, en particulier, ont joué un rôle là-dedans : les Croisés sont devenus un thèmes favori des écrivains et penseurs Romantiques du XIXe siècle, dont le remodelage de ces contes a été crucial pour la création de la vision populaire d’un Moyen Âge très blanc. T.E. Lawrence, le jeune officier de l’armée Anglaise – plus tard connu sous le nom de Lawrence d’Arabie et qui a redéfini la carte du Moyen-Orient moderne – est venu dans cette région comme étudiant d’Oxford écrivant sur les châteaux des Croisés. Divers mouvements fascistes Européens ont adopté la rhétorique des Croisades au cours du XXe siècle. Plus récemment et dans notre propre pays, George W. Bush a appelé aux Croisades dans la foulée des événements du 11 septembre. Et l’élection présidentielle la plus récente a vu une prolifération d’images qui ont longtemps circulé de manière plus silencieuse dans les recoins les plus sombres et les plus racistes du net, des images qui reposent sur ces thèmes médiévaux et des Croisades et des images qui soutiennent les deux candidat.e.s et des visions du monde plus larges.
Mais ce n’est pas juste une rhétorique politique : l’attachement envers le Moyen Âge est aussi une attitude qui a complètement imprégné notre perspective culturelle. Regardez quelque chose à la télé comme Games of Thrones et vous verrez un espèce de fantasme du Moyen Âge au sein duquel les politiques raciales sont incroyablement peu compliquées, avec une sauveuse blanche comme neige et ses dragons offrant la rédemption à des masses inarticulées de barbares au teint hâlé. C’est une rhétorique que les politicien.ne.s peuvent utiliser parce qu’elle fait écho au peuple.
Mais lorsqu’on examine le Moyen Âge dans toute sa complexité, la possibilité de cette vision fantasmatique s’évapore très rapidement.

“Tous Deux Fils d’Espagne”: Les Juifs Médiévaux et les Musulmans dans la Nation imaginaire 

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